There are some symptoms in the dog ( less in the cat) that can indicate the presence of a haemolytic anemia. In a reduced percentage of cases, these are a strong weakness, apathy, hyperthermia.. the can be the alarm bell of this very serious syndrome in the dog.
If you add then pale mucosa and dark urine until coffee color, the suspect of haemolytic anemia becomes unfortunately certainty.
What is the haemolytic anemia? And why is it so dangerous?
Under “haemolysis” we mean the “ distruction of the red blood cells in different size according to the seriousness of the pathology. It can be due to autoimmune or immune causes.
In the first case it is the organism that destroys his red blood cells not recognizing them. In the second case instead the red blood cells have been modified by external agents like bacteria, viruses, fungus that alter their aspect and therefore destroy them
To get a sure diagnosis it is necessary to make a series of specific tests, first of all a complete blood test with a careful reading of results ( all veterinary centers are equipped for particular controls). It will be fundamental to highlight the kind of haemolysis and therefore to understand its cause.
For example, causes can be the presence of “Lupus Eritematoso Sistemico” (a chronic disease of autoimmune nature, that can hit different organs and tissues) or rickettsiosis, haemobartonellosis, pyroplasmosisi like parasite causes. However the haemolytic anemia can be also caused by different kinds of blood cancers. There can be cases where the cause is pharmacological and/or toxic. In these cases we can start a correct therapy, otherwise it will be necessary to proceed with more specific tests like ultrasound scan of the abdomen to verify the volume of spleen and liver, magnetic resonance until the sample of the bone marrow to verify its regenerative activity.
The subject will be recovered in a veterinary clinic equipped for possible transfusions and specific tests. He will have to be supported with fluidifying therapy, with antibiotics and medicines proper to the triggering cause .
A patient with such a complex pathology can not be sent home if not after the doctor’s opinion.
The speed of the diagnosis is very important to avoid to lose the patient.
Don’t underrate the above mentioned symptoms, the pathology can me so aggressive and fast that death can occur in 48 hours. Non sottovalutate mai i sintomi sopra elencati, la patologia può essere talmente aggressiva e veloce che la morte potrebbe sopraggiungere anche in 48 ore.